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A HEBREW SAGE MIGHT SAY. . .
If we do not regard the work of the MESSIAH above our very lives, it isn't because we can't — it is because we don't want to!
CUSTOMS — THE TALMUD
The Talmud (from the Hebrew word: lomad meaning to teach, instruction) is a code of laws as well as a record of rabbinical discussions and decisions pertaining to theology, exegesis, philosophy, natural science, medical learning, ethics, political and domestic economy, etc. as these were understood during a period of one thousand years after the Jews returned from the Babylonian exile. It is an encyclopedic work consisting of 36 volumes composed by over one thousand Rabbis, several of the ancient rabbis including some of those who traced their ancestry to Gentiles who had been converted to Judaism.
It is claimed that Moses received two types of directive on Mt. Sinai, one was the WRITTEN LAW, the TORAH; the other was the Oral Law which was repeated by word of mouth from Moses to Joshua, from Joshua to the elders, from the elders to the prophets, and so on as is stated in the TALMUD itself (Pirke Aboth 1. 1 "Ethics of the Fathers"). It is said that the prophets handed it down orally to the men of the Great Synagogue (perhaps the origin of the name is traced from the assembly in Nehemiah/Nechemah 8 - 10) and so on till Ezra, when it became the possession of the spiritual leaders of that time.
Rabbi Hillel, who lived from 70 BC/BCE to 10 AD/CE, began to compile the Oral Law so that it could be written. Hillel was the grandfather of Gamaliel, the teacher of the Apostle Paul. He was president of the Sanhedrin — the president was the 71st member of the Sanhedrin (70) and was always the High Priest. Rabbi Hillel laid down six or seven rules for the interpretation of the SCRIPTURES which became the foundation of rabbinical hermeneutics and which, no doubt, was used by the Pharisees in the days of MESSIAH YESHUA. The LORD JESUS referred to this Oral Law as "the traditions of the elders." [Matthew 15. 1 - 9; Mark 7. 1 - 13]
Since the Temple with its order of priesthood had been destroyed, there needed to be some source of authority to continue the practice of Judaism among the scattered Jewish people. Therefore, a group of 148 Jewish scholars who were called "Tannaim" (repeaters, teachers — scholars from the Mishnaic Period up to 200 AD/CE) gathered in the ancient city of Yabne (located near the present city of Lydda, Israel) and by their discussions, debates and decisions wrote down that which had been orally handed down over almost six centuries. This writing was published about 200 AD/CE under the leadership of Rabbi Judah the Prince (Judah ha'Nasi). The written form is called the Mishneh (repetition, duplicate) — the Second Law. It was the Oral Law of the Pharisees and almost universally accepted as the authoritative legal code of Judaism.
However, since the Mishneh (or Mishna) was not understood and there was a need for adapting it to the times and to the changing circumstances of life, a group of several hundred rabbis, called Amoraim (expounders) — scholars from the Talmudic Period, 200 - 500 CE/AD — developed the Gemara (completion) which is a commentary on the Mishnah. These two parts of the Talmud are not two divisions or separate books, but the Gemara is included under the Mishna. The Oral law written down is called the Mishna and it is started first, the commentary and application or the Gemara is then stated below it.
This combination, Mishneh-Gemara, composed the Talmud which was completed in Babylon about 400 AD/CE There is a Jerusalem Talmud (Yerushalmi) written in Jerusalem and a Babylonian Talmud (Babli) written in Babylon.
Along with their work on the Mishna and Gemara the Tannaim and Amoraim developed a running commentary on the actual text of the OLD COVENANT. This is called the Midrash, the name coming from the Hebrew word meaning "to study" or "to investigate."
Since it was difficult to understand, Rabbi Joseph B. E. Caro devoted years of his life to summarizing, abridging, and codifying the Talmud for the common man. In 1564 he published his work which he called Shulchan Arukh (Prepared Table). However, there are many laws contained in the Shulchan Arukh which have been added to the laws found in the Talmud - for example: There are fourteen laws regulating the lighting of the Sabbath candles, twenty-one relating to the fringes on the Tallith and twenty-six relating to the prayer shawl. There are laws covering every conceivable thing in daily life, even as to the manner of walking, etc. Directions for the practice of present-day Judaism in the rituals and ceremonies for the High Holy Days, Sabbaths, the Passover Seder (order of ceremony), weddings, etc. are all found in the Shulchan Arukh.
No wonder YESHUA, the ANOINTED ONE called the Pharisees "Hypocrites!" those who draw near to HIM with their mouth, and honor HIM with their lips, but their heart is far from HIM, and their fear toward the LORD JESUS is taught by men, making the commandment of ETERNAL GOD ineffective by their tradition, just as Isaiah prophesied. [Isaiah/Yeshayah 29. 13; Matthew 15. 7 - 9]
Sha’alu (Pray) for the shalom (Peace) of Jerusalem and all of Israel!
Welcome Sabbath — Queen of the week! Praised are YOU, YEHOWAH, our GOD, SOVEREIGN OF THE UNIVERSE, WHO makes us holy with YOUR mitzvoth and favors us with the Holy Shabbat, lovingly and graciously given to us. Assuredly, HE WHO keeps Israel neither slumbers or sleeps!
Sabbath blessings to each of you!
Praying for the peace of Jerusalem, is praying for the return of our Messiah and Lord and for the Kingdom of God He is bringing when He comes. Then God's Will shall be done on earth as it is in Heaven and the world will experience true godly universal peace.
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Please visit our web page for teachings on Bible texts and subjects.
Also notice the section showing the disparity between the Holy Bible and the Muslim Koran (Quran).
The newest section is our thought by thought study through the Bible. Having completed the Torah (books of Moses), and the New Testament, we are now going through the book of; [Isaiah].